Lecturer : Mr. Tri Djoko Wahjono, Ir., M.Sc
Name : Agatha Virgitia Darmawan
Student ID : 1701338122
1. What Career Opportunities Are Available in the Computer Industry?
Career opportunities in the computer industry fall into several areas. In most medium and large businesses and government offices, staff in an IT department is responsible for keeping all computer operations and networks running smoothly. They also determine when and if the organization requires new hardware or software. Workers in the computer equipment field manufacture and distribute computers and computer-related hardware. Employees in the computer software field develop, manufacture, and support a wide range of software. People in the computer service and repair field provide preventive maintenance, component installation, and repair services to customers. Computer salespeople determine a buyer’s needs and match these needs to the correct hardware and software. Computer educators and corporate trainers teach students and employees how to use software, design and develop systems, write programs, and perform other computer-related activities. An IT consultant is a professional who draws upon his or her expertise in a specialized area of computers and provides computer services to clients.
2. What Are the Functions of Jobs in an IT Department?
An IT department provides career opportunities for people with a variety of skills and talents. Usually, these jobs are divided into six main areas. Jobs are listed in the area most often referenced, but also may fall in other areas.
1. Management — directs the planning, research, development, evaluation, and integration of technology.
2. System development and programming — analyzes, designs, develops, and implements new information technology and maintains and improves existing systems.
3. Technical services — evaluates and integrates new technologies, administers the organization’s data resources, and supports the centralized computer operating system and servers.
4. Operations — operates the centralized computer equipment and administers the network, including both data and voice communications.
5. Training — teaches employees how to use components of the information system or answers specific user questions.
6. Security — develops and enforces policies that are designed to safeguard an organization’s data and information from unauthorized users.
3. How Are Trade Schools Different from Colleges?
A trade school, also called a technical school, vocational school, or career college, offers pro- grams primarily in the areas of programming, Web design and development, graphics design, hardware maintenance, networking, personal computer support, and security. One advantage of attending a trade school is time savings. Trade schools teach specific skills instead of requiring students take a broad range of courses in the sciences and humanities. For this reason, students often complete trade school programs in a shorter time than college and university programs. Upon completion of trade school education, students often receive a certificate. Some receive an associate’s degree or higher. Many students seek full- time employment with their certificate or degree and then continue their education on a part-time basis with a two-year or four-year college. To ensure coursework will transfer, it is important that students ask their advisor if the trade school has an articulation agreement with a nearby college or university. An articulation agreement ensures that if you transfer to a college or university, you will receive credit for most of the courses taken at your current school. As with any post-secondary school, when deciding on a trade school, you should compare curricula, laboratory facilities, instructors, and the types of jobs the school’s graduates have obtained. Entry-level jobs for students with a certificate or degree from a trade school include computer technician, desktop publisher/compositor, graphic designer/illustrator, help desk specialist, technical writer, and Web developer.
Attending a College or University.
Some students attend a two-year school, called a community college or junior college. Others attend a four-year college or university. If attending a community college, students should ask their advisor if the school has an articulation agreement with a nearby college or university. As in most other industries, individuals with advanced degrees in specific fields have a better chance of success. To round out their education, many graduates augment their computer degree with a master’s degree in business, education, or other field of study. At colleges and universities, three broad disciplines produce the majority of entry-level employees in the computer industry: computer information systems, computer science, and computer engineering. Another program sometimes offered is software engineering, whose definition varies depending on the school, which may combine characteristics from each of these disciplines.
A trade school, also called a technical school, vocational school, or career college, offers programs primarily in the areas of programming, Web design and development, graphics design, hardware maintenance, networking, personal computer support, and security. Students learn specific skills instead of taking a broad range of science and humanities courses, which can result in time savings for students.
4. How Are the Various College Computer-Related Courses of Study Different?
Three broad disciplines in higher education produce the majority of entry- level employees in the computer industry. Computer information systems (CIS), or information technology (IT), programs teach technical knowledge and skills and focus on how to apply these skills. Computer science (CS) programs stress the theoretical side of programming and operating systems. Computer engineering (CE) programs teach students how to design and develop the electronic components found in computers and peripheral devices.
5. How Can People Stay Current with Changing Technology?
Four primary ways to stay current with computer technology are professional organizations and personal networks, professional growth and continuing education activities, computer publications and Web sites, and certification. Professional organizations are formed by computer professionals with common interests and a desire to extend their proficiency. The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is a scientific and educational organization dedicated to advancing knowledge and proficiency of information technology. The Association of Information Technology Professionals (AITP) is a professional association of programmers, systems analysts, and information processing managers. Maintaining a personal network of job-related contacts can help when seeking change in employment. Professional growth and continuing education include events such as workshops, seminars, conferences, conventions, and trade shows. The International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) is one of the larger technology trade shows, bringing together thousands of vendors and more than 110,000 attendees. Computer industry publications also help to keep people informed about the latest developments in the computer industry. Another source for information is Web sites that discuss or share opinions, analysis, reviews, or news about technology. Certification is a process of verifying the technical knowledge of an individual who has demonstrated competence in a particular area. Computing professionals typically obtain a certification by taking and passing an examination.
6. What Are the Benefits of Certification for Employers, Employees, and Vendors?
IT certification can enhance employees’ careers, provide them with a better standing as industry professionals, and increase their salaries. The explain the benefits of certification for employees :
A certification is one of the first accomplishments an employer notices on a resume. It provides a benchmark, or a means, to measure a person’s skills. It can set an individual apart from other potential candidates who may be vying for a similar advancement or position.
Certification is a personal achievement that adds credibility among peers and employers. Certification also authorizes the certificate holder to use the product’s official logo or symbol on personal items, such as business cards and Web pages. As an additional bonus, some certification training can be used for college credit. Although nothing guarantees job security, certification helps give the IT professional an edge over employees without certification.
Numerous salary surveys show that certification helps influence pay increases. Individuals with more than one area of certification can command even higher salaries. Companies often pay a bonus as an incentive for certification.
Many job listings ask for specific skills represented by certifications, and the number of companies requiring these skills is expected to grow in the future. Vendor-sponsored certifications offer many special benefits as incentives. Sponsors often provide special privileges to certified professionals, such as access to technical and product information. This may include access to secure online electronic resources, special technical support, automatic notification of updates, and access to beta products. In addition, sponsors may offer advanced training opportunities to certificate holders. Free sponsor magazine subscriptions and discounts on product-support publications and tools sometimes are available. Some sponsors even have authorized clothing lines embellished with the certification logo. Professional organizations that offer certifications, such as the Institute for the Certification of Computing Professionals (ICCP), define standards designed to raise the competence level for the computer industry. Certification also offers many benefits to customers, employers, and industry:
• Customer benefits of certification: Customers gain confidence in a company when IT professionals have earned a certification. Multiple certifications show that the professional can deal with many aspects of a problem, drawing from several areas of expertise. Certification implies motivation to expend extra effort, which often benefits the customer.
• Employer benefits of certification: An industry-sponsored study indicates that certified workers are more productive and knowledgeable than noncertified employees. Certified workers within the company have higher morale and job contentment, which benefits the employer.
• Industry benefits of certification: Certification is a form of industry self-regulation. It sets computer professionals’ competence standards and raises the level of expertise and knowledge in the IT industry as a whole. This, in turn, enhances the reputation of the professionals in the industry.
7. How Can People Prepare for Certification?
Training options are available to suit every learning style: self-study, online training classes, instructor-led training, and Web resources.
Flexible self-study programs help professionals prepare for certification at their own pace and supplement other training methods. Self-study requires high motivation and discipline but is the least expensive option. Hundreds of books, videotapes, and computer-based training programs on optical disc are available.
• Online training classes:
Online training allows students to set their own pace in an interactive environment and combines the technological advantages of computer-based training with the connectivity of the Internet or a company’s intranet. Online programs can cost about one-third the price of the traditional instructor-led programs.
• Instructor-led training:
Instructor-led training is available in a variety of forms, including seminars, which typically are held for several days during a week; boot camps, which immerse students in intensive course work for up to two weeks; and academic- style classes, which span a period of several weeks or months. Some sponsors hold their own training sessions and also authorize independent training centers.
• Web resources:
The certification sponsor’s Web site generally contains descriptions of the available certifications, with FAQs and links to authorized training and testing centers. Many include detailed course objectives, training guides, sample test questions, chat rooms, and discussion groups. Most sell books and other training resources. Private individuals often set up Web sites to offer their own views and tips on the testing process.
Most people prefer to use a combination of these options to prepare for a certification test.
8. What Are the General Areas of IT Certification?
Certifications usually are classified based on the computer industry area to which they most closely relate: application software, operating systems, programmer/developer, hardware, networking, digital forensics, security, the Internet, and database systems.
9. What Are Some Specific IT Certifications in Each Certification Area?
Application software certifications, sometimes called end-user certifications, include Microsoft Certified Application Specialist (MCAS), Microsoft Certified Application Professional (MCAP), Microsoft Certified Desktop Support Technician (MCDST), Adobe Certified Associate, Adobe Certified Expert (ACE), Adobe Certified Instructor (ACI), and IBM Certified Professional for Lotus Software. Operating system certifications include IBM Certified Specialist, Microsoft Certified IT Professional (MCITP), Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist (MCTS), Novell Certified Linux Professional (CLP), Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE), Red Hat Certified Technician (RHCT), and Sun Certified System Administrator (SCSA). Programmer/developer certifications include Certified Software Development Professional (CSDP ), IBM Certified Solution Developer, Microsoft Certified Professional Developer (MCPD), Sun Certified Enterprise Architect (SCEA), Sun Certified Java Developer (SC J D), Sun Certified Java Programmer (SC J P), and Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer (SCMAD). Hardware certifications include A +, Dell Certified Systems Expert, and IBM eServer Certified Specialist. Networking certifications include Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA), Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP), Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE), Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator (MCSA), Network +, Novell Certified Administrator (CNA), Novell Certified Engineer (NCE), and Sun Certified Network Administrator (SCNA). Digital forensics certifications include Certified Computer Examiner (CCE), Certified Computer Forensics Examiner (CCFE), Certified Electronic Evidence Collection Specialist (CEECS), and Certified Information Forensics Investigator (CIFI). Security certifications include Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP), Security Certified Network Architect (SCNA), Security Certified Network Professional (SCNP), Security Certified Network Specialist (SCNS), and Systems Security Certified Practitioner (SSCP). Internet certifications include Certified Internet Webmaster (CIW) and Certified Web Professional (CWP). Database certifications include IBM Certified Solutions Expert – DB2, IBM Certified Solutions Expert – Informix, Microsoft Certified IT Professional (MCITP), Oracle Certified Professional (OCP), and Sybase Certified Professional.